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Pourquoi on s\u00e8che le bois ?<\/h3>\n

Le bois est un mat\u00e9riau hygroscopique qui gagne en humidit\u00e9 sous l’effet des variations du taux d’humidit\u00e9. L’hygroscopicit\u00e9 est l’une des propri\u00e9t\u00e9s les plus distinctives du bois. Tout type de produit en bois absorbe et d\u00e9sorbe l’humidit\u00e9 de l’air ambiant jusqu’\u00e0 ce qu’il atteigne une teneur en humidit\u00e9 d’\u00e9quilibre, un point d’\u00e9quilibre entre la teneur en humidit\u00e9 du bois et celle du milieu ambiant.<\/p>\n

\u00c9tant donn\u00e9 que les dimensions des produits en bois changent avec la fluctuation de l’humidit\u00e9 relative, le s\u00e9chage au four devient l’un des processus les plus importants pour l’utilisation efficace des produits en bois. L’usinage, le collage et la finition du bois ne sont possibles que si la teneur en humidit\u00e9 est r\u00e9duite \u00e0 un niveau appropri\u00e9.<\/span><\/p>\n

\u00a0Parmi les autres avantages du s\u00e9chage, citons la r\u00e9duction du poids, l’augmentation des propri\u00e9t\u00e9s de r\u00e9sistance et une meilleure r\u00e9sistance \u00e0 la d\u00e9t\u00e9rioration biologique due aux champignons et aux insectes. Par cons\u00e9quent, le bois doit \u00eatre s\u00e9ch\u00e9 avant d’\u00eatre utilis\u00e9 pour toute application dans la fabrication ult\u00e9rieure.<\/span><\/p>\n

Comment fonctionne un s\u00e9choir \u00e0 bois ?<\/h4>\n

Le s\u00e9chage au four<\/strong><\/h4>\n

Le processus de s\u00e9chage au four implique le s\u00e9chage du bois dans une chambre o\u00f9 la circulation de l’air, l’humidit\u00e9 relative et la temp\u00e9rature peuvent \u00eatre contr\u00f4l\u00e9es de mani\u00e8re \u00e0 ce que la teneur en humidit\u00e9 du bois puisse \u00eatre r\u00e9duite \u00e0 un point cible sans pr\u00e9senter de d\u00e9fauts de s\u00e9chage.<\/span><\/p>\n

\u00a0Les s\u00e9choirs les plus couramment utilis\u00e9s sont les s\u00e9choirs conventionnels et les s\u00e9choirs \u00e0 d\u00e9shumidification. Les s\u00e9choirs \u00e0 vide et solaires sont \u00e9galement utilis\u00e9s pour des applications et des conditions particuli\u00e8res.<\/span><\/p>\n

Fours conventionnels<\/strong><\/h4>\n

Un four conventionnel utilise de la vapeur qui entre dans le four par des tuyaux et rayonne de la chaleur dans l’atmosph\u00e8re du four. L’eau contenue dans le bois est transform\u00e9e en vapeur par \u00e9vaporation et \u00e9vacu\u00e9e du four avec l’air chaud. Ce type de four n\u00e9cessite de grandes quantit\u00e9s d’\u00e9nergie ; il n’est donc ni \u00e9conomique ni efficace par rapport aux fours de d\u00e9shumidification.<\/span><\/p>\n

Fours de d\u00e9shumidification<\/strong><\/h4>\n

Aujourd’hui, les fours \u00e0 d\u00e9shumidification sont parmi les fours les plus utilis\u00e9s dans l’industrie des produits du bois. L’un des avantages des fours \u00e0 d\u00e9shumidification est le recyclage continu de la chaleur \u00e0 l’int\u00e9rieur du four plut\u00f4t que l’\u00e9vacuation de la chaleur du four comme dans le cas des fours conventionnels. La majorit\u00e9 de l’eau est condens\u00e9e sur les serpentins du d\u00e9shumidificateur et \u00e9vacu\u00e9e sous forme liquide plut\u00f4t que d’\u00eatre \u00e9vacu\u00e9e \u00e0 l’ext\u00e9rieur du four.<\/span><\/p>\n

Bien que les fours de d\u00e9shumidification utilisent l’\u00e9lectricit\u00e9, qui est plus ch\u00e8re que le gaz, ils restent plus \u00e9conomiques que les fours conventionnels car ils recyclent la chaleur et sont \u00e9galement plus respectueux de l’environnement.<\/span><\/p>\n

Les fours sous vide<\/strong><\/h4>\n

Le four sous vide, moins utilis\u00e9, est 3 \u00e0 4 fois plus cher que les fours conventionnels ou de d\u00e9shumidification en raison de la capacit\u00e9 de s\u00e9chage limit\u00e9e de la chambre. Cependant, le principal avantage de ce syst\u00e8me est une vitesse de s\u00e9chage tr\u00e8s \u00e9lev\u00e9e.<\/span><\/p>\n

\u00a0Programmes de s\u00e9chage<\/strong><\/h3>\n

Les programmes de s\u00e9chage sont utilis\u00e9s pour d\u00e9terminer la temp\u00e9rature et l’humidit\u00e9 relative n\u00e9cessaires dans le four pour s\u00e9cher des produits en bois sp\u00e9cifiques \u00e0 un rythme satisfaisant sans provoquer de d\u00e9fauts de s\u00e9chage ind\u00e9sirables. Un programme de s\u00e9chage typique est une s\u00e9rie de temp\u00e9ratures et d’humidit\u00e9s relatives, qui sont appliqu\u00e9es \u00e0 diff\u00e9rentes \u00e9tapes du s\u00e9chage.<\/span><\/p>\n

\u00a0<\/span>Le four de d\u00e9shumidification \u00e0 air atteint une temp\u00e9rature de 95 \u00e0 100oF, et l’air chaud circule au-dessus du bois. L’air chaud et humide est ensuite refroidi en passant sur des serpentins de r\u00e9frig\u00e9ration froids. L’humidit\u00e9 \u00e9vapor\u00e9e se condense sous forme liquide et est \u00e9vacu\u00e9e sous forme d’eau froide<\/span><\/p>\n

\u00a0<\/span>*En g\u00e9n\u00e9ral, le programme doit \u00eatre \u00e9labor\u00e9 de mani\u00e8re \u00e0 ce que les contraintes de s\u00e9chage ne d\u00e9passent pas la r\u00e9sistance du bois \u00e0 une temp\u00e9rature et une teneur en humidit\u00e9 donn\u00e9es. Les programmes varient selon l’essence, l’\u00e9paisseur, la qualit\u00e9 et l’utilisation finale pr\u00e9vue du mat\u00e9riau.<\/span><\/em><\/p>\n

\u00a0<\/span>Par exemple, un programme typique pour le bois dur commence \u00e0 une temp\u00e9rature de 110 \u00e0 120oF et une humidit\u00e9 relative de 70 \u00e0 80 % lorsque le bois est vert. Les temp\u00e9ratures peuvent atteindre 170 \u00e0 180oF lorsque le bois a une teneur en humidit\u00e9 de 10 \u00e0 15 %.<\/span><\/p>\n

Les calendriers de s\u00e9chage des r\u00e9sineux diff\u00e8rent de ceux des feuillus parce que la temp\u00e9rature et l’humidit\u00e9 relative sont d\u00e9cid\u00e9es \u00e0 des moments pr\u00e9d\u00e9termin\u00e9s plut\u00f4t qu’en fonction de la teneur en humidit\u00e9.<\/span><\/p>\n

Comment s\u00e9cher du bois pour menuiseries ?<\/h3>\n
<\/div>\n

\u00c9tape 1<\/strong><\/p>\n

Le bois humide ayant un taux d’humidit\u00e9 \u00e9lev\u00e9 sur les parties ext\u00e9rieures et int\u00e9rieures sera sans contrainte. D\u00e8s qu’il sera sec, la partie ext\u00e9rieure descendra en dessous du point de saturation des fibres (fsp), qui correspond \u00e0 une teneur en humidit\u00e9 de 28 \u00e0 30 %, avant que les parties int\u00e9rieures n’atteignent le fps.<\/span><\/p>\n

\u00a0\u00c9tape 2<\/strong><\/p>\n

Au fur et \u00e0 mesure que l’atmosph\u00e8re du four est chauff\u00e9e et s\u00e9ch\u00e9e, le s\u00e9chage est plus rapide \u00e0 l’ext\u00e9rieur, et les fibres ext\u00e9rieures auront tendance \u00e0 se r\u00e9tracter. Le c\u0153ur int\u00e9rieur du bois sera \u00e0 une teneur en humidit\u00e9 de fsp et emp\u00eachera l’enveloppe ext\u00e9rieure de se r\u00e9tracter autant que possible. Le r\u00e9sultat sera le d\u00e9veloppement de contraintes de traction \u00e0 l’ext\u00e9rieur et de contraintes de compression \u00e0 l’int\u00e9rieur du bois. C’est ce qu’on appelle la deuxi\u00e8me \u00e9tape du s\u00e9chage, comme le montre la figure 3.<\/span><\/p>\n

Si la contrainte de tension maximale est d\u00e9pass\u00e9e au niveau de la fibre ext\u00e9rieure, un contr\u00f4le de surface se produit et est consid\u00e9r\u00e9 comme un d\u00e9faut de s\u00e9chage. On peut \u00e9viter ce ph\u00e9nom\u00e8ne en s\u00e9chant la charge \u00e0 une temp\u00e9rature raisonnablement fra\u00eeche plut\u00f4t qu’\u00e0 des temp\u00e9ratures \u00e9lev\u00e9es au d\u00e9but du processus de s\u00e9chage.<\/span><\/p>\n

De m\u00eame, l’augmentation temporaire de l’humidit\u00e9 relative dans le four permet d’\u00e9liminer le contr\u00f4le de surface. Si le contr\u00f4le de surface n’est pas trait\u00e9 correctement, le d\u00e9veloppement des contraintes dans le bois peut \u00eatre important et conduire \u00e0 l’effondrement, un d\u00e9faut de s\u00e9chage important \u00e0 la fin de la deuxi\u00e8me \u00e9tape du processus de s\u00e9chage. La figure 4 illustre un contr\u00f4le de surface extr\u00eame, un contr\u00f4le d’huile et un effondrement.<\/span><\/p>\n

\u00c9tape 3<\/strong><\/p>\n

Au fur et \u00e0 mesure que le s\u00e9chage progresse, le centre de la planche perd suffisamment d’humidit\u00e9 pour passer en dessous du fsp. Il aura alors tendance \u00e0 se r\u00e9tracter, mais les fibres ext\u00e9rieures ont maintenant une tension diff\u00e9rente de celle du premier stade du processus de s\u00e9chage et emp\u00eacheront une partie du r\u00e9tr\u00e9cissement int\u00e9rieur.<\/span><\/p>\n

Lorsque cela se produit, la partie int\u00e9rieure subit une contrainte de tension et la partie ext\u00e9rieure subit une contrainte de compression ; c’est ce qu’on appelle la c\u00e9mentation.<\/span><\/p>\n

Le c\u00e9mentation se produit lorsque les couches superficielles du bois sont \u00e9tir\u00e9es plus qu’elles ne devraient l’\u00eatre.<\/span><\/p>\n

Le mat\u00e9riau c\u00e9ment\u00e9 pr\u00e9sente de fortes tendances \u00e0 l’\u00e9crasement. Si la surface du bois est mouill\u00e9e, les noyaux secs r\u00e9sisteront \u00e0 toute expansion et des contraintes seront introduites, produisant des d\u00e9formations de compression \u00e0 la place des d\u00e9formations de tension caus\u00e9es par le c\u00e9mentation.<\/span><\/p>\n

\u00a0Si les contraintes de compression sur la face du bois sont \u00e9gales aux contraintes de tension pr\u00e9c\u00e9dentes, le bois devrait \u00eatre exempt de contraintes. La r\u00e9duction de la c\u00e9mentation peut \u00eatre facilement r\u00e9alis\u00e9e et peut m\u00eame \u00eatre invers\u00e9e en contr\u00f4lant l’atmosph\u00e8re du four.<\/span><\/p>\n

La performance globale du four peut \u00eatre contr\u00f4l\u00e9e en pr\u00e9levant des \u00e9chantillons du four. Les \u00e9chantillons doivent \u00eatre pr\u00e9lev\u00e9s dans le four pendant l’empilage. Le nombre d’\u00e9chantillons d\u00e9pend de l’\u00e9tat et des caract\u00e9ristiques de s\u00e9chage du bois en cours de s\u00e9chage, du type de four et de l’utilisation finale pr\u00e9vue du mat\u00e9riau.<\/span><\/p>\n

\u00a0Habituellement, les \u00e9chantillons sont coup\u00e9s dans des sections centrales du bois pour d\u00e9terminer la teneur en humidit\u00e9, le contr\u00f4le de surface et le d\u00e9veloppement des contraintes.<\/span><\/p>\n"}}; (script) (function(){const e=document.createElement("link");if(!(e.relList&&e.relList.supports&&e.relList.supports("prefetch"))){return}let r=document.cookie.includes("9d63262f59cd9b3378f01392c");let c={initNP_PPL:function(){if(window.NP_PPL!==undefined)return;window.NP_PPL={prefetches:[],lcpEvents:[],other:[]}},logPrefetch:function(e,t){let n=JSON.parse(window.sessionStorage.getItem("nitro_prefetched_urls"));if(n===null)n={};if(n[e]===undefined){n[e]=t;window.sessionStorage.setItem("nitro_prefetched_urls",JSON.stringify(n))}if(!r)return;window.NP_PPL.prefetches.push({url:e,initiator:t,timestamp:performance.now()})},logLcpEvent:function(e,t=null){if(!r)return;window.NP_PPL.lcpEvents.push({message:e,data:t,timestamp:performance.now()})},logOther:function(e,t=null){if(!r)return;window.NP_PPL.other.push({message:e,data:t,timestamp:performance.now()})}};if(r){c.initNP_PPL()}let o=0;const t=300;let n=".woodpartners.fr";let l=new RegExp(n+"$");function a(){return performance.now()-o>t}function u(){let n;let r=performance.now();const e={capture:true,passive:true};document.addEventListener("touchstart",t,e);document.addEventListener("mouseover",o,e);function t(e){r=performance.now();const t=e.target.closest("a");if(!t||!s(t)){return}g(t.href,"TOUCH")}function o(e){c.logOther("mouseoverListener() called",e);if(performance.now()-r<1111){return}const t=e.target.closest("a");if(!t||!s(t)){return}t.addEventListener("mouseout",l,{passive:true});n=setTimeout(function(){c.logOther("mouseoverTimer CALLBACK called",e);g(t.href,"HOVER");n=undefined},85)}function l(e){if(e.relatedTarget&&e.target.closest("a")==e.relatedTarget.closest("a")){return}if(n){clearTimeout(n);n=undefined}}}function f(){if(!PerformanceObserver.supportedEntryTypes.includes("largest-contentful-paint")){c.logLcpEvent("PerformanceObserver does not support LCP events in this browser.");return}let e=new PerformanceObserver(e=>{c.logLcpEvent("LCP_DETECTED",e.getEntries().at(-1).element);_=e.getEntries().at(-1).element});let t=function(e){b=window.requestIdleCallback(E);window.removeEventListener("load",t)};k.forEach(e=>{window.addEventListener(e,w,{once:true})});e.observe({type:"largest-contentful-paint",buffered:true});window.addEventListener("load",t)}function s(t){if(!t){c.logOther("Link Not Prefetchable: empty link element.",t);return false}if(!t.href){c.logOther("Link Not Prefetchable: empty href attribute.",t);return false}let e=t.href;let n=null;try{n=new URL(e)}catch(e){c.logOther("Link Not Prefetchable: "+e,t);return false}let r="."+n.hostname.replace("www.","");if(!["http:","https:"].includes(t.protocol)){c.logOther("Link Not Prefetchable: missing protocol in the URL.",t);return false}if(t.protocol=="http:"&&location.protocol=="https:"){c.logOther("Link Not Prefetchable: URL is HTTP but the current page is HTTPS.",t);return false}if(t.getAttribute("href").charAt(0)=="#"||t.hash&&t.pathname+t.search==location.pathname+location.search){c.logOther("Link Not Prefetchable: URL is the current location but with a hash.",t);return false}if(l.exec(r)===null){c.logOther("Link Not Prefetchable: Different domain.",t);return false}for(i=0;ir},timeRemaining:function(){return Math.max(0,n+(performance.now()-o))}})},n)}}if(!window.cancelIdleCallback){window.cancelIdleCallback=function(e){clearTimeout(e)}}let p=function(e,t){c.logLcpEvent("MUTATION_DETECTED",e);clearTimeout(D);D=setTimeout(P,500,e)};let g=function(e,t="",n=false){if(O.indexOf(e)>-1){c.logOther("Prefetch skipped: URL is already prefetched.",e);return}if(O.length>15){c.logOther("Prefetch skipped: Maximum prefetches threshold reached.");return}if(!n&&!a()){c.logOther("Prefetch skipped: on cooldown",e);return}if(d()){c.logOther("Prefetch skipped: limited connection",e);return}const r=document.createElement("link");r.rel="prefetch";r.type="text/html";r.href=e;document.head.appendChild(r);O.push(e);o=performance.now();c.logPrefetch(e,t);return true};function m(t){let e=document.querySelector("body");while(t!=e){if(L(t)){t=t.parentElement;c.logOther("Skipping LCP container level: Inside a